Nonphthalate Plasticizers in House Dust from Multiple Countries: An Increasing Threat to Humans

Hongli Tan, Liu Yang, Xiaolin Liang, Diedie Huang, Xinhang Qiao, Qingyuan Dai, Da Chen*, Zongwei Cai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Along with the restrictions of phthalate esters (PAEs), a variety of nonphthalate plasticizers (NPPs) have been increasingly used for industrial needs. Knowledge remains limited on the environmental occurrences, fate, and human exposure risks of many emerging NPPs. In this study, we investigated a suite of 45 NPPs along with the major PAEs in house dust from five regions in the Asia-Pacific region and the United States. The findings clearly demonstrated ubiquitous occurrences of many NPPs in the home environment, particularly acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), tricapryl trimellitate (TCTM), trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM), glycerol monooleate (GMO), methyl oleate (MO), and diisobutyl adipate (DiBA). The median total concentrations of NPPs ranged from 17.8 to 252 μg/g in the study regions, while the mean ratios of ΣNPPs to ΣPAEs ranged from 0.19 (Hanoi) to 0.72 (Adelaide). Spatial differences were observed not only for the chemical abundances but also for the composition profiles and the hazard quotient (HQ) prioritization of individual chemicals. Although the current exposure may unlikely cause significant health risks according to the HQ estimation, potential exposure risks cannot be overlooked, due to the lack of appropriate toxic threshold data, the existence of additional exposure pathways, and possible cocktail effects from coexisting NPPs and PAEs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3634–3644
Number of pages11
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Issue number9
Early online date22 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 7 Mar 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry

User-Defined Keywords

  • house dust
  • human exposure
  • multiple regions
  • nonphthalate plasticizers
  • phthalate esters


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