Nitrogen-rich carbon nitride as solid-phase microextraction fiber coating for high-efficient pretreatment of polychlorinated biphenyls from environmental samples

Xiaowan Zhang, Lizhen Han, Mengyuan Li, Peige Qin, Dan Li, Qian Zhou, Minghua Lu*, Zongwei Cai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A two-dimensional nitrogen-rich carbon nitrogen (C3N5) material was prepared via a facile high temperature thermal polymerization. For the first time, the C3N5 was used as fiber coating of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to extract and preconcentrate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) before gas chromatography (GC) analysis. The X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were performed to investigate structure, functional groups, thermal stability, bonding type, element composition, and atomic ratio of C3N5. The two-dimensional planar stacking structure was further verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Five PCBs including PCB-4, PCB-12, PCB-29, PCB-52 and PCB-101 were selected as targets to evaluate performance of SPME fiber. Under the optimal conditions, the method showed a good linear range from 0.01 to 1000 ng/mL with the correlation coefficients (R2) higher than 0.9990. Enrichment factors of the method were obtained from 2045 to 3080. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) and limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) were calculated as 0.0031–0.0111 ng/mL and 0.01–0.05 ng/mL, respectively. The precisions of intra-day and inter-day were obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 1.5–6.6% and 0.8–6.9%, respectively. The fiber-to-fiber producibility was achieved with RSDs ranged from 3.5% to 11.4%. The method was applied to detect PCBs in river water and soil samples. The contents were calculated at 0.040–0.147 ng/mL in water and 0.520–3.218 ng/g in soil. The C3N5 as SPME fiber coating material may be applied to extract and preconcentrate other environmental pollutants which have similar chemical structures with PCBs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number462655
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Volume1659
Early online date30 Oct 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Dec 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry

User-Defined Keywords

  • Carbon nitride
  • Environment pollutants
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Preconcentration
  • Sample pretreatment
  • Solid-phase microextraction

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