N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N′-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine quinone (6PPDQ) has attracted significant attention due to its highly acute lethality to sensitive salmonids. However, studies investigating the mechanisms underlying its acute toxicity have been lacking. In this work, we demonstrated the sensitivity of rainbow trout to 6PPDQ-induced mortality. Moribund trout exhibited significantly higher brain concentrations of 6PPDQ compared to surviving trout. In an in vitro model using human brain microvascular endothelial cells, 6PPDQ can penetrate the blood–brain barrier and enhance blood–brain barrier permeability without compromising cell viability. The time spent in the top of the tank increased with rising 6PPDQ concentrations, as indicated by locomotion behavior tests. Furthermore, 6PPDQ influenced neurotransmitter levels and mRNA expression of neurotransmission-related genes in the brain and exhibited strong binding affinity to target neurotransmission-related proteins using computational simulations. The integrated biomarker response value associated with neurotoxicity showed a positive linear correlation with trout mortality. These findings significantly contribute to filling the knowledge gap between neurological impairments and apical outcomes, including behavioral effects and mortality, induced by 6PPDQ.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Emerging contaminant
- Locomotor activity
- Molecular dynamics simulation
- Rainbow trout