Ancestral benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (1 μg/L, 21 days) exposure has previously been shown to cause skeletal deformities in medaka (Oryzias latipes) larvae in the F1–F3 generation. However, when and how this deformity is induced during bone development remain to be elucidated. The col10a1:nlGFP/osx:mCherry double transgenic medaka model was employed to determine the temporal and spatial changes of col10a1:nlGFP- positive osteochondral progenitor cells (OPCs) and osx:mCherry-positive premature osteoblasts (POBs) [8 days postfertilization (dpf)–31 dpf] in combination with changes in bone mineralization at the tissue level. Ancestral BaP exposure delayed the development of col10a1:nlGFP- and osx:mCherry-positive osteoblasts and reduced the abundance of col10a1:nlGFP-positive osteoblast progenitors and col10a1:nlGFP/osx:mCherry double-positive premature osteoblasts during critical windows of early vertebral bone formation, associated with reduced bone mineralization in embryos (14 dpf) and larvae (31 dpf), compressed vertebral segments in larvae (31 dpf), and reduced bone thickness in adult male medaka (6 months old) of the F1–F3 generations. Both Col10a1:nlGFP and osx:mCherry were identified as potential targets of epigenetic modifications underlying the transgenerational inheritance of BaP bone toxicity. The present study provides novel knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of transgenerational toxicity of BaP at the cellular level.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Chemistry