During an epidemic, the spatial, temporal and demographical patterns of disease transmission are determined by multiple factors. Besides the physiological properties of pathogenes and hosts, the social contacts of host population, which characterize individuals' reciprocal exposures of infection in view of demographical structures and various social activities, are also pivotal to understand and further predict the prevalence of infectious diseases. The means of measuring social contacts will dominate the extent how precisely we can forecast the dynamics of infections in the real world. Most current works focus their efforts on modeling the spatial patterns of static social contacts. In this work, we address the problem on how to characterize and measure dynamical social contacts during an epidemic from a novel perspective. We propose an epidemic-model-based tensor deconvolution framework to address this issue, in which the spatiotemporal patterns of social contacts are represented by the factors of tensors, which can be discovered by a tensor deconvolution procedure with an integration of epidemic models from rich types of data, mainly including heterogeneous outbreak surveillance, social-demographic census and physiological data from medical reports. Taking SIR model as a case study, the efficacy of the proposed method is theoretically analyzed and empirically validated through a set of rigorous experiments on both synthetic and real-world data.