Massively multiplayer online game addiction: Instrument development and validation

Zach W.Y. Lee*, Christy M K CHEUNG, Tommy K.H. Chan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


The primary objective of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument for massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) addiction. Three stages of instrument development were undertaken to achieve this objective: item generation, scale development, and instrument testing. The results of a confirmation factor analysis confirmed the existence of seven dimensions of MMOG addiction, namely Salience, Mood Modification, Tolerance, Withdrawal, Conflicts, Relapse, and Loss of Control. The final instrument exhibits adequate levels of reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and nomological validity. The instrument is expected to assist future empirical research on MMOG addiction. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-430
Number of pages18
JournalInformation and Management
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 13 Oct 2015

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Management Information Systems
  • Information Systems
  • Information Systems and Management

User-Defined Keywords

  • Conceptualization
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Instrument development
  • Massively multiplayer online game
  • Technology addiction


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