Machine learning for high-throughput experimental exploration of metal halide perovskites

Mahshid Ahmadi*, Maxim Ziatdinov, Yuanyuan Zhou*, Eric A. Lass, Sergei V. Kalinin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)


Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) have catapulted to the forefront of energy research due to the unique combination of high device performance, low materials cost, and facile solution processability. A remarkable merit of these materials is their compositional flexibility allowing for multiple substitutions at all crystallographic sites, and hence thousands of possible pure compounds and virtually a near-infinite number of multicomponent solid solutions. Harnessing the full potential of MHPs necessitates rapid exploration of multidimensional chemical space toward desired functionalities. Recent advances in laboratory automation, ranging from bespoke fully automated robotic labs to microfluidic systems and to pipetting robots, have enabled high-throughput experimental workflows for synthesizing MHPs. Here, we provide an overview of the state of the art in the automated MHP synthesis and existing methods for navigating multicomponent compositional space. We highlight the limitations and pitfalls of the existing strategies and formulate the requirements for necessary machine learning tools including causal and Bayesian methods, as well as strategies based on co-navigation of theoritical and experimental spaces. We argue that ultimately the goal of automated experiments is to simultaneously optimize the materials synthesis and refine the theoretical models that underpin target functionalities. Furthermore, the near-term development of automated experimentation will not lead to the full exclusion of human operator but rather automatization of repetitive operations, deferring human role to high-level slow decisions. We also discuss the emerging opportunities leveraging machine learning-guided automated synthesis to the development of high-performance perovskite optoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2797-2822
Number of pages26
Issue number11
Early online date25 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Energy(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • automated synthesis
  • Bayesian optimization
  • hybrid perovskites
  • machine learning
  • materials discovery


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