Lung is colonized by a diverse array of microbes and the lung microbiota is profoundly involved in the development of respiratory diseases. There is little knowledge about the role of lung microbiota dysbiosis in lung cancer. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from two different sampling methods in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and non-cancer controls. We found the obvious variation between bronchoscopy samples and lobectomy samples. Oral taxa can be found in both bronchoscopy and lobectomy samples and higher abundance of oral taxa can be found in bronchoscopy samples. Although the NSCLC patients had similar microbial communities with non-cancer controls, rare species such as Lactobacillus rossiae, Bacteroides pyogenes, Paenibacillus odorifer, Pseudomonas entomophila, Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense, fungus Chaetomium globosum et al. showed obvious difference between NSCLC patients and non-cancer controls. Age-, gender-, and smoking-specific species and EGFR expression-related species in NSCLC patients were detected. There results implicated that different lung segments have differential lung microbiome composition. The oral taxa are found in the lobectomy samples suggesting that oral microbiota are the true members of lung microbiota, rather than contamination during bronchoscopy. Lung cancer does not obviously alter the global microbial composition, while rare species are altered more than common species. Certain microbes may be associated with lung cancer progression.
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