The hab1-1abi1-2abi2-2pp2ca-1 quadruple mutant (Qabi2-2) seedlings lacking key negative regulators of ABA signaling, namely, clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs), show more apoplastic H+ efflux in roots and display an enhanced root growth under normal medium or water stress medium compared to the wild type. The presence of low ABA concentration (0.1 micromolar), inhibiting PP2C activity via monomeric ABA receptors, enhances root apoplastic H+ efflux and growth of the wild type, resembling the Qabi2-2 phenotype in normal medium. Qabi2-2 seedlings also demonstrate increased hydrotropism compared to the wild type in obliquely-oriented hydrotropic experimental system, and asymmetric H+ efflux in root elongation zone is crucial for root hydrotropism. Moreover, we reveal that Arabidopsis ABA-insensitive 1, a key PP2C in ABA signaling, interacts directly with the C terminus of Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase 2 (AHA2) and dephosphorylates its penultimate threonine residue (Thr947), whose dephosphorylation negatively regulates AHA2.
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