Bisphenol F (BPF) is a major alternative to bisphenol (BPA) and has been widely used. Although BPA exposure is known to generate various toxic effects, toxicity of BPF remains under-explored. A comprehensive method involving mass spectrometry (MS)-based global lipidomics and metabolomics, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI)- MS imaging (MSI) was used to study toxic effects of BPF and the underlying mechanisms on tumor metastasis-related tissues (liver and kidney) in breast cancer xenografts. Our results demonstrated that BPF exposure disturbed the metabolome and lipidome of liver and kidney. Exposure induced reprogramming of the glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis and glycolytic metabolism by activating glycine, serine, cysteine, glutamine, lactate and pyruvate in liver and kidney tissues. It also perturbed the biosynthesis and degradation of glycerophospholipids (GPs) and glycerolipids (GLs), resulting in abnormality of membrane homeostasis and cellular functions in kidney tissues. Moreover, spatial distribution and profile of metabolites changed across renal cortex and medulla regions after BPF treatment. Levels of phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) increased in renal medulla and pelvis, while the levels of phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylinositols (PI) increased in cortex and pelvis. These observations offer a deeper understanding of critical role of metabolites and lipid reprogramming in BPF-induced biological effects.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- Bisphenol F
- Breast cancer xenografts