Korean Red Ginseng extract induces angiogenesis through activation of glucocorticoid receptor

Wai Nam Sung, Hoi Hin Kwok, Man Hee Rhee, Patrick Y K YUE, Ricky N S WONG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Background Our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has shown that Rg1 can modulate the expression of a subset of miRNAs to induce angiogenesis. Moreover, Rb1 was shown to be antiangiogenic through activation of a different pathway. These studies highlight the important functions of miRNAs on ginseng-regulated physiological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the angiogenic properties of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KGE). Methods and Results Combining in vitro and in vivo data, KGE at 500 μg/mL was found to induce angiogenesis. According to the miRNA sequencing, 484 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be affected by KGE. Among them, angiogenic-related miRNAs; miR-15b, -23a, -214, and -377 were suppressed by KGE. Meanwhile, their corresponding angiogenic proteins were stimulated, including vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and MET transmembrane tyrosine kinase. The miRNAs-regulated signaling pathways of KGE were then found by Cignal 45-Pathway Reporter Array, proving that KGE could activate GR. Conclusion KGE was found capable of inducing angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro models through activating GR. This study provides a valuable insight into the angiogenic mechanisms depicted by KGE in relation to specific miRNAs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)477-486
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ginseng Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2017

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Complementary and alternative medicine

User-Defined Keywords

  • angiogenesis
  • endothelial cells
  • Korean Red Ginseng extract
  • microRNAs


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