Press freedom and censorship demands new empirical as well as conceptual research that responds to the diversity of media systems that cannot be captured within binary free/unfree categories. This article surveys threats to press freedom emanating from the state, the market, and the people. Direct state censorship still exists, but most states rely increasingly on more subtle and indirect means of media control. Market forces, including media owners, are another source of restriction. The problem of self-censorship, usually operating through economic pressure, is widespread and pernicious, but inadequately theorized. Tensions between journalism and the public surface in populist opposition to the media’s attempts to defend minority rights. In such cases, the press can find itself needing to resist the very people in whose name it exercises its democratic role. These complications require journalism scholars to rethink the normative frameworks and assumptions underlying studies of press freedom. This article argues for a rightsbased approach that treats public discourse - and not media organizations or media workers - as the prime object of press freedom.
|Name||Handbooks of Communication Science|
|Publisher||De Gruyter Mouton|
- freedom of expression
- media control