The widespread use of UV filters has resulted in significant amounts of these chemicals appearing not only in the environment but also in organisms. This study first assessed the levels of nine UV filters in waters along the coast of Shenzhen, China, in tapwater, and in a nearby reservoir. UV filters were found to be high, in both winter and summer at most locations. Then, using zebrafish as a model, the influence of a UV filter mixture after dietary and aqueous exposure was assessed. After exposing artemia to three dominant UV filters at two levels and then feeding these artemia to zebrafish adults, concentrations in both were up to 4 times higher when exposed to the mixtures than when exposed to only a single UV filter. A short-term 25-day dietary exposure to the zebrafish adults did not appear to significantly influence early life stage development of the second generation; however, relatively long exposure over 47 days had significant adverse effects on embryo development. Aqueous exposure of fish embryos to mixtures of the three UV filters demonstrated a general trend of decreased heart/hatching rate as doses increased, coupled with significant changes in activities of catalase and malate dehydrogenase.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Chemistry