Job formalization and cultural individualism as barriers to trust in management

Xu Huang*, Evert Van De Vliert

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to identify some structural and cultural barriers to employees' trust in management. Multilevel analyses of data from 160,577 employees in 46 countries suggested that job formalization is negatively associated with trust in management, especially in individualistic countries, and that this relationship is mediated by less open employee-management communication. By contrast, in collectivistic countries no strong link was found between job formalization and both trust and open communication.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-242
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Cross Cultural Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Business and International Management
  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management

User-Defined Keywords

  • Individualism
  • Job formalization
  • Open communication
  • Trust


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