賈玉銘的成聖觀與儒家心性學

Translated title of the contribution: Jia Yuming’s Doctrine of Sanctification and the Confucian Nurturing Doctrine of Xin (Heart-Mind)

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Abstract

本文旨在透過民國時期基督新教的基要神學家賈玉銘(1880-1964) 的成聖觀,探析華人基督徒如何整合中國文化的特點。蔡仁厚認為基督宗教不可以直接地說「人皆可以為基督」,但本文指出,賈玉銘的「生命」神學,其實建構了一套中國基督徒的修養工夫,而它的目標便是鼓勵人成為「活著就是基督」的「基督人」。本文認為,賈玉銘是因為他的訓練背景,他的自然神學,及他相信儒學與基督在道德問題上有聯手的可能性,而使他認為基督教與儒家有相通之處。賈玉銘「調和」基督教與中國文化思想的具體作法是:賈玉銘保留了傳統基督教的神學概念,但用中國文化的修養意識重新詮釋和表達這些概念。並且,他在一些中國文化重視的主題上,若有合適的教義思想,便將基督教與中國文化平行的地方擴大化,而原本西方的關注和討論,若非中國人興趣之內,則省略甚或不提及。因此,他的成聖觀教導,人是因著「私心」及「物欲所蔽」而「陷溺」於罪,致使不能認識真神。要解決人的物欲之蔽,拯其陷溺,人便要得著「生命」——基督,使他由陷溺中恢復。人順其「生命」,「誠於中必形於外」,則必發展至基督人階段。在這個過程之中,成聖並不是一個被動的、外加的「聖徒地位」,而是一個人能自主的修養過程,是一種互為內在的經歷。最後,賈氏的基要派立場,雖然看似獨尊基督教,但他的思想實際上深深帶有儒學的影子。這提示著我們基督與中國文化表面上的分歧,仍蘊含著有趣的相互轉化在其中。

This article studies the interaction between the doctrine of sanctification of the Chinese fundamentalist theologian Jia Yuming (1880-1964) and the Confucian nurturing doctrine of xin (heart-mind). This article points out tiiat Jia's theology of "life" constructs a Chinese Christian teaching of self-cultivation of heart-mind. And its objective is to encourage people to become "Christ-man" whose life is Christ. Jia Yuming asserted that Christianity and Confucianism could learn from each other, though it is a surprising move against the common impression of Fundamentalist theology. He used Confucian terms such as "selfishness" (si xin), "blinded by materialism" (wuyu suo bi) and "addicted" (xian ni) to discuss Christian doctrine of sin. He interpreted the process of Christian sanctification alongside the Confucian teachings in Mengzi (The Book of Mencius) and Daxue (Great Learning). And he asserted that it is similar to the Conflician teaching: "internal sincerity will express itself outwardly." It is not a passive imputation by God, but something that a person can self-cultivate to achieve.
Translated title of the contributionJia Yuming’s Doctrine of Sanctification and the Confucian Nurturing Doctrine of Xin (Heart-Mind)
Original languageChinese (Traditional)
Pages (from-to)75-109
Number of pages35
Journal漢語基督教學術論評
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2014

User-Defined Keywords

  • 賈玉銘
  • 儒家
  • 成聖論
  • 基要主義
  • Jia Yuming
  • Confucianism
  • Christian doctrine of Sanctification
  • Fundamentalism

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