Irregular droughts trigger mass flowering in aseasonal tropical forests in Asia

Shoko Sakai*, Rhett D. Harrison, Kuniyasu Momose, Koichiro Kuraji, Hidetoshi Nagamasu, Tetsuzo Yasunari, L. Chong, T. Nakashizuka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

159 Citations (Scopus)


General flowering is a community-wide masting phenomenon, which is thus far documented only in aseasonal tropical forests in Asia. Although the canopy and emergent layers of forests in this region are dominated by species of a single family, Dipterocarpaceae, general flowering involves various plant groups. Studying proximate factors and estimating the flowering patterns of the past and future may aid our understanding of the ecological significance and evolutionary factors behind this phenomenon. Here we show that this phenomenon is most likely triggered by irregular droughts based on 10 years of observations. In the aseasonal forests of SE Asia, droughts tend to occur during transition periods from La Niña to El Niño, which results in an irregular 6–7-yr cycle involving a dry period with several droughts and a wet period without droughts. The magnitude of a flowering event also depends on the timing of droughts associated with the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) cycle, with the largest events occurring after an interval of several years with no flowering. Because most plant species can only reproduce successfully during large flowering events, changes in the ENSO cycle resulting from global warming, may have serious ramifications for forest regeneration in this region.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1134-1139
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Botany
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006


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