Interpenetrating interfaces for efficient perovskite solar cells with high operational stability and mechanical robustness

Qingshun Dong, Chao Zhu, Min Chen, Chen Jiang, Jingya Guo, Yulin Feng, Zhenghong Dai, Srinivas K. Yadavalli, Mingyu Hu, Xun Cao, Yuqian Li, Yizhong Huang, Zheng Liu, Yantao Shi*, Liduo Wang, Nitin P. Padture*, Yuanyuan Zhou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

192 Citations (Scopus)


The perovskite solar cell has emerged rapidly in the field of photovoltaics as it combines the merits of low cost, high efficiency, and excellent mechanical flexibility for versatile applications. However, there are significant concerns regarding its operational stability and mechanical robustness. Most of the previously reported approaches to address these concerns entail separate engineering of perovskite and charge-transporting layers. Herein we present a holistic design of perovskite and charge-transporting layers by synthesizing an interpenetrating perovskite/electron-transporting-layer interface. This interface is reaction-formed between a tin dioxide layer containing excess organic halide and a perovskite layer containing excess lead halide. Perovskite solar cells with such interfaces deliver efficiencies up to 22.2% and 20.1% for rigid and flexible versions, respectively. Long-term (1000 h) operational stability is demonstrated and the flexible devices show high endurance against mechanical-bending (2500 cycles) fatigue. Mechanistic insights into the relationship between the interpenetrating interface structure and performance enhancement are provided based on comprehensive, advanced, microscopic characterizations. This study highlights interface integrity as an important factor for designing efficient, operationally-stable, and mechanically-robust solar cells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number973
Number of pages9
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 12 Feb 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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