Integrating inquiry and mathematical modeling when teaching a common topic in lower secondary school: an iSTEM approach

Kevin Manunure*, Allen Leung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


The world has been increasingly shaped by Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). This has resulted in educational systems across the globe implementing STEM education. To reap maximum benefits, researchers are now advocating for the integration of STEM domains. In recent studies, the integration of science and mathematics has become increasingly popular. The domains are much more suitable for integration because of their fields of application and their mutual approach toward problem-solving. However, there is little empirical evidence to drive the development of a practical model for classroom implementation. This study aims to cover that gap through integrating mathematics and science concepts when teaching a common topic to two classes of Form 1 (13–14 years) students. A mathematics and a science teacher went through two cycles of lesson study, integrating and teaching the concept of density. Results show a strong synergy between the BSCS 5E instructional model of inquiry and mathematical modeling; hence the methodological approaches can be used to integrate common topics like density. Further, teacher collaboration, teacher immersion in the iSTEM practices, teacher’s knowledge, and skills of the other subject and an in-depth understanding of a problem and its contextualization, are variables that can be capitalized on to enhance the teacher’s capacity to implement innovative and integrated STEM programs effectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1376951
Number of pages17
JournalFrontiers in Education
Publication statusPublished - 2 May 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Education

User-Defined Keywords

  • density
  • iSTEM
  • inquiry
  • integration model
  • mathematical modeling
  • mathematics
  • science


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