Influence of Contoured Insoles with Different Materials on Kinematics and Kinetics Changes in Diabetic Elderly during Gait

Qiu Qiong Shi, Pui Ling Li, Kit Lun Yick*, Jiao Jiao, Qi Long Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Alterations in the lower limb kinematics and kinetics of diabetic patients have been reported in previous studies. Inappropriate choices of orthopedic insole materials, however, fail to prevent diabetic foot ulcers and modify abnormal gait. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare the effects of contoured insoles with different materials on the kinematics of and kinetics changes in the diabetic elderly during gait. Methods: There were 21 diabetic patients who participated in this study. Three-dimensional (3D) experimental contoured insoles constructed of soft (i.e., Nora Lunalastik EVA and PORON® Medical 4708) and rigid (i.e., Nora Lunalight A fresh and Pe-Lite) materials with Langer Biomechanics longitudinal PPT® arch pads were adopted. An eight-camera motion capture system (VICON), two force plates, and an insole measurement system—Pedar® with 99 sensors—were utilized to obtain the kinematics and kinetics data. The plug-in lower body gait model landmarks were used for dynamic data acquisition during gait. The corresponding data from five gait cycles were selected and calculated. Results: The range of motions (ROMs) of the ankle joint (p = 0.001) and knee joint (p = 0.044) were significantly influenced when the contoured insoles were worn in comparison to the barefoot condition. The joint moments of the lower limbs with maximum ankle plantarflexion during the loading response and maximum knee and hip flexions were significantly influenced by the use of contoured insoles with different materials in the diabetic elderly. The peak plantar pressure (PPP) of the forefoot (p < 0.001), midfoot (p = 0.009), and rearfoot (p < 0.001) was significantly offloaded by the contoured insoles during the stance phase, whilst the PPP of the rearfoot (p < 0.001) was significantly offloaded during the swing phase. Conclusions: The contoured insoles, especially those constructed with soft materials, significantly offloaded the PPP during gait—hence accommodating certain abnormal gait patterns more effectively compared to going barefoot.
Original languageEnglish
Article number12502
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2022

User-Defined Keywords

  • contoured insoles
  • diabetic foot
  • gait pattern
  • insole materials
  • peak plantar pressure


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