Indirect and Direct Impacts of Typhoon In-Fa (2021) on Heavy Precipitation in Inland and Coastal Areas of China: Synoptic-Scale Environments and Return Period Analysis

Liangyi Wang, Xihui Gu*, Louise J. Slater, Yangchen Lai, Xiang Zhang, Dongdong Kong, Jianyu Liu, Jianfeng Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In July 2021, Typhoon In-Fa (TIF) triggered a significant indirect heavy precipitation event (HPE) in central China and a direct HPE in eastern China. Both these events led to severe disasters. However, the synoptic-scale conditions and the impacts of these HPEs on future estimations of return periods remain poorly understood. Here, we find that the remote HPE that occurred̰2200 km ahead of TIF over central China was a predecessor rain event (PRE). The PRE unfolded under the equatorward entrance of the upper-level westerly jet. This event, which encouraged divergent and adiabatic outflow in the upper level, subsequently intensified the strength of the upper-level westerly jet. In contrast, the direct HPE in eastern China was due primarily to the long duration and slow movement of TIF. The direct HPE occurred in areas situated less than 200 km from TIF’s center and to the left of TIF’s propagation trajectory. Anomaly analyses reveal favorable thermodynamic and dynamic conditions and abundant atmospheric moisture that sustained TIF’s intensity. A saddle-shaped pressure field in the north of eastern China and peripheral weak steering flow impeded TIF’s movement northward. Hydrologically, the inclusion of these two HPEs in the historical record leads to a decrease in the estimated return periods of similar HPEs. Our findings highlight the potential difficulties that HPEs could introduce for the design of hydraulic engineering infrastructure as well as for the disaster mitigation measures required to alleviate future risk, particularly in central China.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2377-2395
Number of pages19
JournalMonthly Weather Review
Volume151
Issue number9
Early online date30 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Atmospheric Science

User-Defined Keywords

  • Climate change
  • Hydrology
  • Tropical cyclones

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