In-vessel co-composting of horse stable bedding waste and blood meal at different C/N ratios: Process evaluation

Jonathan W C WONG*, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Zhenyong Zhao, Obuli P. Karthikeyan, Shuk Man Yu, Alex C.W. Law, Patricia C.P. Chung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Abattoir blood meal is rich in nitrogen and its potential as a co-composting material for horse stable bedding waste was evaluated at two C/N ratios - 32 (LBM, low blood meal) and 16 (HBM, high blood meal) - to improve the nutrient contents of the final compost. The mix was composted for 7 days in a 10 tonne/day in-vessel composter and cured aerobically. After 56 days of composting, the ammoniacal-N, CO2 evolution rate and C/N ratio of both LBM and HBM were within the guideline values; however, delayed decomposition and lower seed germination index were observed with HBM. In addition, HBM resulted in 84% loss of the initial ammoniacal-N. Almost similar organic decompositions, 62.4% and 59.6% with LBM and HBM, respectively, were achieved. However, a stable compost product can be obtained within 6-7 weeks with LBM, whereas <8 weeks were required for HBM composting. Therefore, co-composting at the C/N ratio of 32 is recommended to achieve odour-free and faster composting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2561-2567
Number of pages7
JournalEnvironmental Technology (United Kingdom)
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal

User-Defined Keywords

  • Abattoir blood meal
  • C/N ratio
  • Composting
  • Horse stable bedding waste
  • In-vessel


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