We previously found that sulfur fumigation, a commonly used controversial method for the post-harvest handling of ginger, induces the generation of a compound in ginger, which was speculated to be a sulfur-containing derivative of 6-shogaol based on its mass data. However, the chemical and biological properties of the compound remain unknown. As a follow-up study, here we report the chemical structure, systemic exposure, and anticancer activity of the compound. Chromatographic separation, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, and chemical synthesis structurally elucidated the compound as 6-gingesulfonic acid. Pharmacokinetics in rats found that 6-gingesulfonic acid was more slowly absorbed and eliminated, with more prototypes existing in the blood than 6-shogaol. Metabolism profiling indicated that the two compounds produced qualitatively and quantitatively different metabolites. It was further found that 6-gingesulfonic acid exerted significantly weaker antiproliferative activity on tumor cells than 6-shogaol. The data provide chemical and biological evidence that sulfur fumigation may impair the healthcare functions of ginger.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- 6-gingesulfonic acid
- sulfur fumigation
- systemic exposure