Impact of physical and social environments on the walking behaviour of Hong Kong's older adults

Ka Man Leung*, Pak-Kwong Chung, Donggen Wang, Jingdong Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: This study examined the associations between physical environment (facilitators and barriers), social environment, and walking among older adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Between April and December 2016, a sample of 679 adults aged 65 years or above was recruited in Neighbourhood Elderly Centres from across the 18 council districts of Hong Kong. Participants were asked to complete validated questionnaires that were used to assess the above constructs; participants were asked to track their daily step counts over 7 days using an accelerometer. Structural Equation Modelling was performed to examine the studied relationships by using maximum likelihood estimation in LISREL 9.3. Results: The initial model did not fit the data adequately. The item ‘companionship’ was deleted because of its low standardised factor loading. A standardised residual of items was correlated with reference to the modification indices and high standardised residuals. The data were analysed again. The modified structural model fitted the data sufficiently, as indicated by the fit indices. Only physical environment–facilitators (i.e., land use mix, access, street connectivity, infrastructure, indoor facilities, presence of people, and easy access to residential entrances) were predictive of older adults’ steps per day. The findings provide a reference for policy makers seeking to provide supportive physical walking environments and promote active ageing among older adults.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-308
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Transport and Health
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Transportation
  • Pollution
  • Safety Research
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

User-Defined Keywords

  • Environment
  • Older people
  • Walking


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