As a bisphenol A (BPA) alternative, bisphenol F (BPF) has been detected in various products, such as paper products, personal care products, and food. More importantly, the toxicity of BPF remains underexplored. We reported an integrated method to study the immunotoxic potentials and the underlying mechanisms of BPF on cell apoptosis, macrophage polarization, reactive oxygen species generation, expression and secretion of immune-related cytokines, and reprogramming of lipid signaling. More serious to BPA, BPF induced apoptosis in macrophages. The apoptosis was induced by activating both sphingomyelin-ceramide signaling pathway and oxidative stress, which included intrinsic (bax and caspase-9) and extrinsic apoptotic pathways (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, caspase-8, and caspase-3). BPF exposure also induced the proinflammatory phenotype of the macrophage. This alternation was shown to be closely correlated with the modulation of biosynthesis and degradation of glycerophospholipids. This study demonstrated novel evidence that BPF as a substituent of BPA induced immunotoxic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. We also showed that the reprogramming of lipidome plays a key role in the regulation of macrophage polarization and the induction of immunotoxicity of the BPA analogue.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Environmental Chemistry