With the explosive growth of online images and the popularity of search engines, a great demand has arisen for small and medium-sized enterprises to build and outsource large-scale image retrieval systems to cloud platforms. While reducing storage and retrieval burdens, enterprises are at risk of facing untrusted cloud service providers. In this paper, we take the first step in studying the problem of query authentication for large-scale image retrieval. Due to the large size of image files, the main challenges are to (i) design efficient authenticated data structures (ADSs) and (ii) balance search, communication, and verification complexities. To address these challenges, we propose two novel ADSs, the Merkle randomized k-d tree and the Merkle inverted index with cuckoo filters, to ensure the integrity of query results in each step of image retrieval. For each ADS, we develop corresponding search and verification algorithms on the basis of a series of systemic design strategies. Furthermore, we put together the ADSs and algorithms to design the final authentication scheme for image retrieval, which we name ImageProof. We also propose several optimization techniques to improve the performance of the proposed ImageProof scheme. Security analysis and extensive experiments are performed to show the robustness and efficiency of ImageProof.