Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

Walter Y.H. Lam, Henry Y T NGAN, Peter Y.P. Wat, Henry W.K. Luk, Tazuko K. Goto, Edmond H.N. Pow*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in book/report/conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Medical radiography is the use of radiation to ′ see through′ a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE-IS and T Electronic Imaging - Image Processing
Subtitle of host publicationMachine Vision Applications VIII
EditorsKurt S. Niel, Edmund Y. Lam
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414950
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventImage Processing: Machine Vision Applications VIII - San Francisco, United States
Duration: 10 Feb 201511 Feb 2015

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceImage Processing: Machine Vision Applications VIII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

User-Defined Keywords

  • Cartesian coordinates
  • Cone beam computed tomography
  • Implant surgical guide
  • Mapping
  • Rigid registration


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