Identification of a new Irgarol-1051 related s-triazine species in coastal waters

Ka Ho Lam, Zongwei CAI, Ho Yin Wai, Vic Wing Hang Tsang, Michael Hon Wah Lam*, Richard Yun Hing Cheung, Hong Xia Yu, Paul Kwan Sing Lam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


A previously unknown s-triazine species present in commercially available Irgarol-1051, a booster biocide additive in copper-based antifouling paints for the replacement of organotin-based antifoulants, has been identified in the coastal aquatic environment. After careful isolation, purification and characterization by high resolution MS-MS and 1H NMR, the molecular structure of that unknown species is found to be N,N′-di-tert-butyl-6- methylthiol-s-triazine-2,4-diamine (designated as M3). Levels of Irgarol-1051, its major degradation product (M1) and the newly identified M3 in the coastal waters of Hong Kong, one of the world's busiest ports located in the southern coast of China, were monitored by SPME-GC-MS and SPME-GC-FID. Water samples from five locations within Hong Kong waters were analysed and the levels of Irgarol-1051, M1 and M3 were found to be 0.1-1.6 μg l-1, 36.8-259.0 μg l-1 and 0.03-0.39 μg l-1, respectively. Our results indicate that M3 is relatively stable against photo- and bio-degradation and may pose considerable risk to primary producer communities in the coastal marine environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)221-230
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

User-Defined Keywords

  • Antifouling agent
  • Degradation product
  • Irgarol-1051
  • N,N′-Di-tert-butyl-6-methylthiol-s-triazine-2,4-diamine
  • s-Triazine


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