Arabidopsis EXTRA-LARGE G PROTEIN 1 (XLG1) functions together with XLG2 and XLG3 in PAMP-triggered MAPK activation and immunity

Yiping Wang, Hailei Zhang, Pengxi Wang, Huan Zhong, Wuzhen Liu, Shoudong Zhang, Liming Xiong, Yingying Wu*, Yiji Xia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) is an essential strategy used by plants to deploy broad-spectrum resistance against pathogen attacks. Heterotrimeric G proteins have been reported to contribute to PTI. Of the three non-canonical EXTRA-LARGE G PROTEINs (XLGs) in Arabidopsis thaliana, XLG2 and XLG3 were shown to positively regulate immunity, but XLG1 was not considered to function in defense, based on the analysis of a weak xlg1 allele. In this study, we characterized the xlg1 xlg2 xlg3 triple knockout mutants generated from an xlg1 knockout allele. The strong xlg1 xlg2 xlg3 triple mutants compromised pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and resistance to pathogen infection. The three XLGs interacted with MAPK cascade proteins involved in defense signaling, including the MAPK kinase kinases MAPKKK3 and MAPKKK5, the MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK5, and the MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6. Expressing a constitutively active form of MKK4 restored MAPK activation and partially recovered the compromised disease resistance seen in the strong xlg1 xlg2 xlg3 triple mutant. Furthermore, mutations of all three XLGs largely restored the phenotype of the autoimmunity mutant bak1-interacting receptor-like kinase 1. Our study reveals that all three XLGs function redundantly in PAMP-triggered MAPK activation and plant immunity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-837
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Integrative Plant Biology
Issue number3
Early online date17 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Plant Science

User-Defined Keywords

  • Arabidopsis
  • heterotrimeric G protein
  • MAPK cascade
  • plant immunity
  • XLG1
  • XLG2


Dive into the research topics of 'Arabidopsis EXTRA-LARGE G PROTEIN 1 (XLG1) functions together with XLG2 and XLG3 in PAMP-triggered MAPK activation and immunity'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this