Hologenome analysis reveals dual symbiosis in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent snail Gigantopelta aegis

Yi Lan, Jin Sun, Chong Chen, Yanan Sun, Yadong Zhou, Yi Yang, Weipeng Zhang, Runsheng LI, Kun Zhou, Wai Chuen Wong, Yick Hang Kwan, Aifang Cheng, Salim Bougouffa, Cindy Lee Van Dover, Jian Wen Qiu, Pei Yuan Qian*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Animals endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents often form obligatory symbioses with bacteria, maintained by intricate host–symbiont interactions. Most genomic studies on holobionts have not investigated both sides to similar depths. Here, we report dual symbiosis in the peltospirid snail Gigantopelta aegis with two gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts: a sulfur oxidiser and a methane oxidiser. We assemble high-quality genomes for all three parties, including a chromosome-level host genome. Hologenomic analyses reveal mutualism with nutritional complementarity and metabolic co-dependency, highly versatile in transporting and using chemical energy. Gigantopelta aegis likely remodels its immune system to facilitate dual symbiosis. Comparisons with Chrysomallon squamiferum, a confamilial snail with a single sulfur-oxidising gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont, show that their sulfur-oxidising endosymbionts are phylogenetically distant. This is consistent with previous findings that they evolved endosymbiosis convergently. Notably, the two sulfur-oxidisers share the same capabilities in biosynthesising nutrients lacking in the host genomes, potentially a key criterion in symbiont selection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1165
JournalNature Communications
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 19 Feb 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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