Heterostyly: Speciation within a species

Shoko Sakai*, Yukihiko Toquenaga

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Almost all organisms in nature show nonrandom mating to different degrees. Two extreme results of nonrandom mating are speciation and sexual differentiation. Heterostyly is a form of sexual differentiation considered to have evolved to resolve conflicts between male and female functions of hermaphrodite flowers. Our study examines necessary and sufficient conditions for establishment of heterostyly using a configuration individual-based model. Previous models assume invasion of a mutant phenotype into a population with monomorphic wild phenotype. In contrast, our model demonstrates that heterostyly can be established from a population with continuous phenotypic variation, a proposition that requires simpler assumptions than the previous hypotheses. Results of our simulation show that genetic linkage between stigma and anther heights is essential for establishment of heterostyly. Dominance effects on the genes for stamen or stigma heights are not necessary, but they promote evolution of heterostyly. Probability of evolution of heterostyly also depends on the functional relationship between stigma-anther distance and strength of sexual interference, and the distance and probability of pollen deposition success. Parallelity and difference between speciation and sexual differentiation are also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-262
Number of pages10
JournalPopulation Ecology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004

User-Defined Keywords

  • Breeding system
  • Individual-based model
  • Nonrandom mating
  • Sexual dimorphism
  • Sexual interference


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