This critical review provides an overview of current research activities that focused on the synthesis and application of multi-functional gold and iron oxide (Au–FexOy) hybrid nanoparticles and nanocomposites. An introduction of synthetic strategies that have been developed for generating Au–FexOy nanocomposites with different nanostructures is presented. Surface functionalisation and bioconjugation of these hybrid nanoparticles and nanocomposites are also reviewed. A variety of applications such as theranostics, gene delivery, biosensing, cell sorting, bio-separation, and catalysis is discussed and highlighted. Finally, future trends and perspectives of these sophisticated nanocomposites are outlined. Underpinning the fundamental requirements for effectively forming Au–FexOy hybrid nanocomposite materials would shed light on future development of nanotheranostics, nanomedicines, and chemical technologies. It would be interesting to investigate such multi-component composite nanomaterials with different novel morphologies in the near future to advance chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering multi-disciplinary research (120 references).
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