Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA): Chemical synthesis and correlation between their urinary levels and plasma TBBPA content in voluntary human donors

Ka Lok Ho, Ka Ki Yuen, Man Shan Yau, Margaret B. Murphy, Yi Wan, Bonnie M.W. Fong, Sidney Tam, John P. Giesy, Kelvin S Y LEUNG, Michael H.W. Lam*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

3,3′,5,5′-Tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) is an important brominated flame retardant in epoxy, vinyl esters and polycarbonate resins. Previous studies have already shown the occurrence of its Phase II metabolites, TBBPA-glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, in human urine, after oral administration of TBBPA. The main objective of this work is to examine correlations among level of TBBPA in human blood and those of its Phase II metabolites in human urine. Four water-soluble TBBPA conjugates were synthesized, purified and characterized. An analytical protocol using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) quantification was developed for the simultaneous analysis of these glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in human urine samples. TBBPA and its Phase II metabolites in paired human plasma and urine samples collected randomly from 140 voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China, were determined. One or more TBBPA conjugates were detected in all of the urine samples, with concentration ranging from 0.19 to 127.24 μg g− 1-creatinine. TBBPA was also quantified in > 85% of the plasma and urine samples. Strong correlations were observed between TBBPA content in plasma and the total amount of TBBPA-related compounds in urine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)46-53
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental International
Volume98
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Body fluids
  • Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates
  • Human plasma
  • Human urine
  • Tetrabromobisphenol-A

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