Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are major products of Phase II metabolism of BPA in humans. In the past, their determination in body fluids usually involves tedious enzymatic hydrolysis and multiresidual analysis. The recent availability of authentic standards of these conjugates enables our better understand of the human metabolism of BPA and the distribution of their metabolites in body fluids. In this work, we report the chemical synthesis and purification of BPA mono- and di-glucuronide and BPA mono- and di-sulfate. Their levels, as well as that of BPA, in 140 paired human plasma and urine samples collected randomly from voluntary donors in Hong Kong SAR, China, were determined by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). BPA was found in more than 135 human plasma and urine samples. Its Phase II metabolites, ranging from N.D. to 36.7 µg g−1-creatinine, also were detected in 139 of the 140 urine samples. Good correlation (r = 0.911) between molar concentration of BPA in the plasma and that of “total urinary BPA” (i.e., ln [(BPA + ∑ BPA phase II conjugate)molar concentration]) was observed. Direct quantification of Phase II metabolites of BPA in human urine can be a useful assessment tool for population exposure to this potent endocrine disrupting chemical. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
|Number of pages
|Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
|Published - Oct 2017
Scopus Subject Areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis