Global REnal Involvement of CORonavirus Disease 2019 (RECORD): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

Kam Wa Chan, Kam Yan Yu, Pak Wing Lee, Kar Neng Lai, Sydney Chi Wai Tang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: The quantitative effect of underlying non-communicable diseases on acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence and the factors affecting the odds of death among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) AKI patients were unclear at population level. This study aimed to assess the association between AKI, mortality, underlying non-communicable diseases, and clinical risk factors. 

Methods: A systematic search of six databases was performed from January 1, 2020, until October 5, 2020. Peer-reviewed observational studies containing quantitative data on risk factors and incidence of renal manifestations of COVID-19 were included. Location, institution, and time period were matched to avoid duplicated data source. Incidence, prevalence, and odds ratio of outcomes were extracted and pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. History of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and age group were stratified for analysis. Univariable meta-regression models were built using AKI incidence as dependent variable, with underlying comorbidities and clinical presentations at admission as independent variables. 

Results: Global incidence rates of AKI and RRT in COVID-19 patients were 20.40% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.07–28.74] and 2.97% (95% CI = 1.91–4.04), respectively, among patients without RRT history. Patients who developed AKI during hospitalization were associated with 8 times (pooled OR = 9.03, 95% CI = 5.45–14.94) and 16.6 times (pooled OR = 17.58, 95% CI = 10.51–29.38) increased odds of death or being critical. At population level, each percentage increase in the underlying prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and tumor history was associated with 0.82% (95% CI = 0.40–1.24), 0.48% (95% CI = 0.18–0.78), 0.99% (95% CI = 0.18–1.79), and 2.85% (95% CI = 0.93–4.76) increased incidence of AKI across different settings, respectively. Although patients who had a kidney transplant presented with a higher incidence of AKI and RRT, their odds of mortality was lower. A positive trend of increased odds of death among AKI patients against the interval between symptom onset and hospital admission was observed. 

Conclusion: Underlying prevalence of non-communicable diseases partly explained the heterogeneity in the AKI incidence at population level. Delay in admission after symptom onset could be associated with higher mortality among patients who developed AKI and warrants further research.

Original languageEnglish
Article number678200
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Publication statusPublished - 25 May 2021

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Medicine(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • COVID-19
  • internal medicine
  • meta-analysis
  • meta-regression
  • renal medicine
  • risk factor
  • systematic review


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