Ginger attenuates trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)-exacerbated disturbance in cholesterol metabolism and vascular inflammation

Zouyan He, Lin Lei, Erika Kwek, Yimin Zhao, Jianhui Liu, Wangjun Hao, Hanyue Zhu, Ning Liang, Ka Ying Ma, Hing Man Ho, Wen Sen He, Zhen Yu Chen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been identified as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The present study was to investigate the effects of ginger extract (GE) on plasma cholesterol and inflammation in TMAO-exacerbated hypercholesterolemic mice. Forty-five mice were assigned into five groups and fed a non-cholesterol diet, a high-cholesterol diet, or one of the three experimental high-cholesterol diets containing 1% GE, 0.2% TMAO, or 0.2% TMAO plus 1% GE for 12 weeks. Results showed that dietary TMAO increased plasma total cholesterol (TC). GE decreased plasma TC in both non-TMAO-fed and TMAO-fed mice, by up-regulating the expression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and promoting fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. GE also lowered plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). It was concluded that GE could alleviate the TMAO-aggravated elevation in plasma TC and vascular inflammation in high cholesterol diet-fed mice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-33
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Functional Foods
Early online date31 Oct 2018
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019
Externally publishedYes

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Food Science
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

User-Defined Keywords

  • Cholesterol
  • Ginger extract
  • Heart disease
  • Inflammation
  • TMAO


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