General framework to histogram-shifting-based reversible data hiding

Xiaolong Li*, Bin Li, Bin Yang, Tieyong Zeng

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

384 Citations (Scopus)


Histogram shifting (HS) is a useful technique of reversible data hiding (RDH). With HS-based RDH, high capacity and low distortion can be achieved efficiently. In this paper, we revisit the HS technique and present a general framework to construct HS-based RDH. By the proposed framework, one can get a RDH algorithm by simply designing the so-called shifting and embedding functions. Moreover, by taking specific shifting and embedding functions, we show that several RDH algorithms reported in the literature are special cases of this general construction. In addition, two novel and efficient RDH algorithms are also introduced to further demonstrate the universality and applicability of our framework. It is expected that more efficient RDH algorithms can be devised according to the proposed framework by carefully designing the shifting and embedding functions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6459018
Pages (from-to)2181-2191
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

User-Defined Keywords

  • Embedding performance
  • histogram shifting (HS)
  • reversible data hiding (RDH)


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