Gaussian process latent variable model factorization for context-aware recommender systems

Wei Huang, Richard Yi Da Xu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Context-aware recommender systems (CARS) have gained increasing attention due to their ability to utilize contextual information. Compared to traditional recommender systems, CARS are, in general, able to generate more accurate recommendations. The latent factors approach accounts for a large proportion of CARS. Recently, a non-linear Gaussian Process (GP) based factorization method was proven to outperform the state-of-the-art methods in CARS. Despite its effectiveness, standard GP model-based methods can suffer from over-fitting and may not be able to determine the impact of each context automatically. In order to address such shortcomings, we propose a Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model Factorization (GPLVMF) method, where we apply an appropriate prior to the original GP model. Our work is primarily inspired by the Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model (GPLVM), which is a non-linear dimensionality reduction method. Since the traditional maximum likelihood approach for standard GP cannot be applied to our model, we adopt a variational inference method to solve the GPLVMF model. As a result, we improve the results on the real datasets significantly as well as capturing the importance of each context. In addition to the general advantages, our method flexibly provides two contributions regarding recommender system settings: (1) addressing the influence of bias by setting a non-zero mean function, and (2) utilizing real-valued contexts by fixing the latent space with real values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)281-287
Number of pages7
JournalPattern Recognition Letters
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
Externally publishedYes

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Software
  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Artificial Intelligence

User-Defined Keywords

  • Bayesian probabilistic modeling
  • Collaborative factorization
  • Gaussian process latent variable model


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