There is an increasing research interest in the concept and measurement of mental toughness. This study examined the psychometric properties of the 8-item Mental Toughness Inventory (MTI) in two Chinese samples: 503 youth athletes and 513 university students. The unidimensional model of the MTI was confirmed and measurement invariance between males and females was supported in both samples. As expected, mental toughness was positively associated with the three basic psychological needs and effort in the athlete sample, and with life satisfaction in the student sample. Excellent internal consistency reliability was found in both samples, and good test–rest reliability was also demonstrated in the student sample. Collectively, these findings provide further psychometric evidence for the MTI and support the utility of the scale in China.
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