Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. We compared the potency of fish oil with flaxseed oil in reducing TMAO-exacerbated atherogenesis. Five groups of ApoE-/- mice were given one of five diets, namely, a low-fat diet, a Western high fat diet (WD), a WD plus 0.2% TMAO, and two WDs containing 0.2% TMAO with 50% lard being replaced by flaxseed oil or fish oil. TMAO accelerated atherosclerosis and disturbed cholesterol homeostasis. Compared with flaxseed oil, fish oil was more effective in inhibiting TMAO-induced atherogenesis by lowering plasma cholesterol and inflammatory cytokines. Both oils could reverse TMAO-induced decrease in fecal acidic sterols. Fish oil promoted fecal output of neutral sterols and downregulated hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis. Fish oil was more effective than flaxseed oil in promoting the growth of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria and lowering microbial generation of lipopolysaccharide. In conclusion, fish oil is more potent than flaxseed oil to ameliorate TMAO-exacerbated atherogenesis.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- fish oil
- flaxseed oil
- gut microbiota