Exploring STEM Pedagogy in the Mathematics Classroom: a Tool-Based Experiment Lesson on Estimation

Allen Leung*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


How to pedagogically integrate the four STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines is a main discussion issue in STEM education. Inquiry-based learning, mathematical modeling, and tool-based pedagogy could go hand in hand to provide a possible integrated STEM pedagogical framework for mathematics and science. This discussion paper explores such a boundary pedagogy via the proposal of an inquiry-based modeling pedagogical cycle. The cycle is used as a lens to analyze a sequence of tool-based mathematics school lessons conducted as a science experiment on the topic of estimation. The lesson design is seen through the proposed pedagogical cycles and selected students’ work is presented to illustrate students’ different problem-solving tracks in a minimalist instruction environment. Pedagogical features that characterize a STEM boundary pedagogical approach are identified. The paper concludes with a discussion on some core values of STEM education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1339–1358
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
Issue number7
Early online date24 Aug 2018
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Education
  • Mathematics(all)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Boundary object
  • Inquiry-based learning
  • Mathematical modeling
  • Pedagogy
  • STEM education


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