外资 : 发展中国家城市化的新动力——珠江三角洲个案研究

Translated title of the contribution: Exo-Urbanization: The Case of The Zhujiang River Delta

薛凤旋, 杨春

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

城市化的研究历来都偏重于内力的营造,例如区域经济的不同发展步伐,乡村-城市的人口流动,政府的地区性经济政策以及新城市的建设等。在资本、人力、技术和市场走向“全球化”的情况下,新的国际分工自1980年以来已成为一些发展中国家和地区的人口及经济活动急剧增长与集中的主要动力。南中国的珠江三角洲在1978年~1993年间的城市化,体现了这个新动力。本文对这一类型城市化的特点和空间形态作出了概括性的描述。这被简称为“外向型城市化”的新类别,和Desakota并不一样,反证了Desakota并不适用于珠江三角洲。

Ever since the late 1970s, foreign capital has become an active agent in economic growth and urban development in many developing countries. This is a product of the globalization of production and other economic activities inspired by the New International Division of Larbour (NIDL) and a new and positive altitude of most developing countries towards the utilization of foreign capital for their own development. With active inflow of foreign capital, not only the local economy of some developing countries has been drastically transformed, their urbanization has been transformed by this new dynamic as well. In this paper, such an urbanization process which bears improtant imprint of foreign capital, is labelled as exo (genous) urbanization.

It is believed that the volume, duration, nature and consequence of foreign capital there have been such that it has produced the only case of exo urbanization in the Zhujiang River Delta of the PRC in 1990. The paper analyses the process as it happened in 1978~1993. 1978 marks the start of the new Open Door and Reform of the PRC which turns the Zhujiang River Delta from a slow growth area under central planning into a fast economic take off area where market mechanism and foreign captital have played the predominant role in its economy.

It is found that foreign capital has transformed the economy of the Delta in the period from a traditional rural one into one which is largely urban and export oriented. The new economy is predominated by light manufacture with both foreign and domestic funds and market orientations. Yet foreign capital and foreign market have the larger role. Drastic growth of this new economy not only has led to rural urban migration within the Delta, in the later part of the period, intra provincial and inter provincial medium to long distance migration has also been induced. Many of the new migrants are young and unskilled cheap labour required by the rapidly expanding manufacture and service sectors of the new economy.

Exo-urbanization in the Delta is found to show a number of characteristics. There is a close causal relationship between urbanization and the inflow of foreign capital as well as the new industrial sector growth that it has espoused. Secondly, the rate of urbanization is hectic, and is accompanied by the more hectic expansion of the built-up area, to a great extent, caused by the rapid expansion of land for urban and industrial uses. Thirdly, urban growth happens more in the small and medium urban places as well as ‘rural areas’ (or rural urban transition areas) where land is cheaper and official control over labour, environmental pollution and general bureaucracy are more laxed. Thus it has led to the faster growth of smaller urban centers than the larger centers. In the case of the Delta, the rank size curve has become smoother and the primacy of Guangzhou, the provincial capital has declined. Fourthly, exo urbanization shows a spatial bias towards the demarcation zone in the Delta, a clear response to the pull of the market and the main source of capital, i.e., Hong Kong.

Exo-urbanization is thus marked by different from other new phenomena described by recent studies in and around large metropolitan area of the developing countries, such as the extended urbanization. However, the social, political and environmental implication of the process needs to be further studied and its substantiation is yet insufficiently explored.
Translated title of the contributionExo-Urbanization: The Case of The Zhujiang River Delta
Original languageChinese (Simplified)
Pages (from-to)193-206
Number of pages14
Journal地理学报
Volume52
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1997
Externally publishedYes

User-Defined Keywords

  • 城市化
  • 外资
  • 珠江三角洲
  • urbanization
  • foreign capital
  • Zhujiang River Delta

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