Examining Flow Antecedents in Game-Based Learning to promote Self-Regulated Learning and Acceptance

Kelvin T H Wan, Vivian King, Kevin Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Game-Based Learning (GBL) has been recognized as an essential tool for motivating students to engage in active and constructive learning. While there is a link between GBL and learning outcomes, current research evidence tends to undermine the interrelationships of concepts and oversimplify flow experience in the context of GBL. This study used a comprehensive Flow perspective to examine the roles of specific gaming characteristics affecting students’ self-regulated learning and acceptances of use in a higher education GBL context, with a path model based on data collected from 275 undergraduate university students. The model demonstrated an excellent fit of the data with interrelations among constructs about Flow Antecedents, Acceptance of Use, Motivation and Metacognition. The findings revealed that learners place a higher value on GBL with flow elements like Concentration and Challenge, which is linked to their learning motivation and metacognitive outcomes. Aid by GBL on knowledge gain and immersive experience are considered as the underpinnings of Performance Expectancy before students consider adopting GBL for their learning. In contrast to what is typical of serious games, learners primarily use GBL to improve their academic performance rather than for its immersive experience. Future studies could use the current model to develop and examine a different learning artefact, depending on its nature and study goals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-546
Number of pages16
JournalElectronic Journal of e-Learning
Issue number6
Early online date23 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 30 Dec 2021

User-Defined Keywords

  • path analysis
  • technology acceptance model
  • Game Flow
  • gamification
  • motivation


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