In fish, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is a key endocrine factor that acts on gill, intestine and kidney to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. The recent identification and study of mammalian STCs (STC1 and STC2) revealed that the hormones are made in virtually all tissues and they act primarily as paracrine/autocrine factors to regulate various biological functions. Based on their ubiquitous expression patterns and generally undetectable levels in blood serum, it is unlikely that the mammalian STCs play important roles in serum Ca 2+/P i homeostasis. However current evidences still support the local action of STCs in Ca 2+ and P i transport, probably via their action on Ca 2+-channels and Na +/P i co-transporter. At present, information about the sequence, expression and distribution of the STC receptor(s) is lacking. However, recent emerging evidence hints the involvement of STC1 and STC2 in the sub-cellular functions of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum respectively, particularly responding to oxidative stress and unfolded protein response. With increasing evidence that demonstrates the local actions of STCs, the focus of the research has been moved to cellular inflammation and carcinogenesis. This review integrates the information available on STCs in fish and mammals, focusing mainly on their embryonic origin, tissue distribution, their potential regulatory mechanisms and the modes of action, and their physiological and pathophysiological functions, particularly in cancer biology.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Molecular Biology
- Calcium and phosphate regulation
- Endoplasmic reticulum
- Growth and development