Polymyxin B-based combinations have emerged as a mainstay treatment against carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli (CREC). We investigated the activity of polymyxin B-based two-antibiotic combinations against CREC using time-kill studies (TKS) and validated the findings in a hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM). TKS were conducted using 5 clinical CREC strains at 5 log10 CFU/ml against 10 polymyxin B-based two-antibiotic combinations at maximum clinically achievable concentrations. HFIMs simulating dosing regimens with polymyxin B (30,000U/kg/day) and tigecycline (100 mg every 12 h) alone and in combination were conducted against two CREC strains at 5 log10 CFU/ml over 120 h. Emergence of resistance was quantified using antibiotic-containing media. Phenotypic characterization (growth rate and stability of resistant phenotypes) of the resistant isolates was performed. All five CREC strains harbored carbapenemases. Polymyxin B and tigecycline MICs ranged from 0.5 mg/liter to 2 mg/liter and from 0.25 mg/liter to 8 mg/liter, respectively. All antibiotics alone did not have bactericidal activity at 24 h in the TKS, except for polymyxin B against two strains. In combination TKS, only polymyxin B plus tigecycline demonstrated both bactericidal activity and synergy in two out of five strains. In the HFIM, polymyxin B alone was bactericidal against both CREC strains before regrowth was observed at 8 h. Phenotypically stable polymyxin B-resistant mutants were observed for both strains, with a reduced growth rate observed in one strain. Tigecycline alone resulted in a slow reduction in bacterial counts. Polymyxin B plus tigecycline resulted in rapid and sustained bactericidal killing up to 120 h. Polymyxin B plus tigecycline is a promising combination against CREC. The clinical relevance of our results warrants further investigations.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Antibiotic combination testing
- Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
- Hollow-fiber infection model
- Polymyxin B