Enabling Efficient, Verifiable, and Secure Conjunctive Keyword Search in Hybrid-Storage Blockchains

Ningning Cui, Dong Wang, Jianxin Li, Huaijie Zhu*, Xiaochun Yang, Jianliang Xu, Jie Cui, Hong Zhong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


Blockchain has emerged as a prevailing paradigm for decentralized applications due to its reliability and transparency. To scale up retrieval services, a common strategy is to use a hybrid storage model, where on-chain storage is responsible for small metadata and off-chain storage is for outsourced raw data. However, data security and result authenticity are ongoing challenges in this scenario, and little work has been done due to the difficulty of combining result verification and privacy preservation, especially for dynamic updates while supporting forward privacy. In this paper, we formally define the problem of efficient, verifiable, and secure conjunctive keyword search in hybrid-storage blockchains (vsChain) and propose a novel hybrid index that achieves efficient query and verification while supporting dynamic updates with forward privacy guarantee. We also design two optimized schemes to improve query and verification performance by using a partition-based method and an obfuscated counting Bloom filter mechanism. Finally, we provide a theoretical security analysis and empirical evaluations using real and synthetic datasets to demonstrate the feasibility of our proposed schemes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2445-2460
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number6
Early online date23 Oct 2023
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics

User-Defined Keywords

  • Blockchains
  • result verification
  • privacy-preserving
  • conjunctive keyword search
  • dynamic updates


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