Development and initial validation of the psychological needs satisfaction scale in physical education

Jingdong LIU, Pak-Kwong CHUNG*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs satisfaction in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education, PNSSPE). Junior secondary school (grades 7 to 9) students (N = 1,258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation (34 items) and initial content validity of the PNSSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the PNSSPE was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNSSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the PNSSPE demonstrated good content, factorial, discriminant, and nomological validities. It also demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The measurement model was proven invariant across gender and samples. Psychometric evidence from a series of studies suggests that the PNSSPE could be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students satisfaction of psychological needs in physical education.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-122
Number of pages22
JournalMeasurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2014

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

User-Defined Keywords

  • adolescents
  • physical education
  • reliability
  • self-determination theory
  • validity


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