DDInter: An online drug-drug interaction database towards improving clinical decision-making and patient safety

Guoli Xiong, Zhijiang Yang, Jiacai Yi, Ningning Wang, Lei Wang, Huimin Zhu, Chengkun Wu, Aiping Lu, Xiang Chen, Shao Liu*, Tingjun Hou*, Dongsheng Cao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Drug-drug interaction (DDI) can trigger many adverse effects in patients and has emerged as a threat to medicine and public health. Despite the continuous information accumulation of clinically significant DDIs, there are few open-access knowledge systems dedicated to the curation of DDI associations. To facilitate the clinicians to screen for dangerous drug combinations and improve health systems, we present DDInter, a curated DDI database with comprehensive data, practical medication guidance, intuitive function interface, and powerful visualization to the scientific community. Currently, DDInter contains about 0.24M DDI associations connecting 1833 approved drugs (1972 entities). Each drug is annotated with basic chemical and pharmacological information and its interaction network. For DDI associations, abundant and professional annotations are provided, including severity, mechanism description, strategies for managing potential side effects, alternative medications, etc. The drug entities and interaction entities are efficiently cross-linked. In addition to basic query and browsing, the prescription checking function is developed to facilitate clinicians to decide whether drugs combinations can be used safely. It can also be used for informatics-based DDI investigation and evaluation of other prediction frameworks. We hope that DDInter will prove useful in improving clinical decision-making and patient safety. DDInter is freely available, without registration, at http://ddinter.scbdd.com/.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)D1200-D1207
Number of pages8
JournalNucleic Acids Research
Issue numberD1
Early online date11 Oct 2021
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2022

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Genetics

User-Defined Keywords

  • Clinical Decision-Making
  • Databases, Factual
  • Drug Interactions/genetics
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/classification
  • Humans
  • Patient Safety
  • Software


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