Countering violent extremism through internet intermediaries: A typology for cross-country comparison

Vincent Pak Hong Wong*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review


This paper examines the counter-violent extremism and anti-terrorism measures in Australia, China, France, the United Kingdom and the United States by investigating how governments leveraged internet intermediaries as their surrogate censors. Particular attention is paid to how political rhetoric led to legislation passed or proposed in each of the countries studied, and their respective restrictive measures are compared against the recommendations specified by the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression. A typology for international comparison is proposed, which provides further insights into a country’s policy focus.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-22
Number of pages20
JournalGlobal Media and Communication
Issue number1
Early online date13 Mar 2024
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Communication
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

User-Defined Keywords

  • Censorship legislation
  • China censorship
  • content moderation
  • counter-violent extremism
  • cross-country comparison
  • cyberspace law
  • internet intermediaries
  • internet surveillance
  • online censorship
  • political rhetoric


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