Cost-effective data feeds to blockchains via workload-adaptive data replication

Kai Li, Zhehu Yuan, Yuzhe Tang*, Cheng Xu, Jiaqi Chen, Jianliang Xu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in book/report/conference proceedingConference proceedingpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Feeding external data to a blockchain, a.k.a. data feed, is an essential task to enable blockchain interoperability and support emerging cross-domain applications. Given the data-intensive nature of real-life feeds (e.g., high-frequency price updates) and the high cost of using blockchain, namely Gas, it is imperative to reduce the Gas cost of data feeds. Motivated by the constant-changing workloads infinancial applications, this work aims at designing a dynamic, workload-aware approach for Gas cost optimization. This design space is understudied in existing blockchain research which has so far focused on static data placement. This work presents GRuB, a cost-effective data feed that dynamically replicates data between the blockchain and offchain cloud storage. GRuB monitors the current workload and makes data-replication decisions in a workload-adaptive fashion. Online algorithms are proposed to bound the worst-case cost in Gas. GRuB's decision-making components run on the untrusted cloud off-chain for lower Gas, and employs a security protocol to authenticate the data transferred between the blockchain and cloud. We built a GRuB prototype on Ethereum and supported reafinancial applications. Using the workloads reconstructed from Ethereum transaction history, we evaluate GRuB's cost and show a Gas saving by 10% ~ 74%, in comparison with the static baselines.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMiddleware 2020 - Proceedings of the 2020 21st International Middleware Conference
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781450381536
Publication statusPublished - 7 Dec 2020
Event21st International Middleware Conference, Middleware 2020 - Virtual, Online, Netherlands
Duration: 7 Dec 202011 Dec 2020

Publication series

NameMiddleware 2020 - Proceedings of the 2020 21st International Middleware Conference


Conference21st International Middleware Conference, Middleware 2020
CityVirtual, Online

Scopus Subject Areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Information Systems
  • Software

User-Defined Keywords

  • Authenticated data structures
  • Blockchains
  • Data feeds
  • Data replication
  • DeFi
  • Workload awareness


Dive into the research topics of 'Cost-effective data feeds to blockchains via workload-adaptive data replication'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this