Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) have been found in over 6000 plants worldwide and represent the most common hepatotoxic phytotoxins. Catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes, PAs are metabolized into reactive pyrrolic metabolites, which can alkylate cellular proteins and DNA to form pyrrole-protein adducts and pyrrole-DNA adducts, leading to cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. To date, the correlation between these PA-derived pyrrole-protein and pyrrole-DNA adducts has not been well investigated. Retrorsine is a representative hepatotoxic and carcinogenic PA. In the present study, the correlations among the PA-derived liver DNA adducts, liver protein adducts, and serum protein adducts in retrorsine-treated mice under different dosage regimens were studied. The results showed positive correlations among these adducts, in which serum pyrrole-protein adducts were more accessible and present in higher abundance, and thus could be used as a suitable surrogate biomarker for pyrrole-DNA adducts to indicate the genetic or carcinogenic risk posed by retrorsine.
Scopus Subject Areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
- pyrrole-DNA adducts
- pyrrole-protein adducts
- pyrrolizidine alkaloids